R. A. No. 11232 The Revised Corporation Code of the Philippines 13

TITLE XIII
SPECIAL CORPORATIONS

CHAPTER I
EDUCATIONAL CORPORATIONS

SEC. 105. Incorporation. – Educational corporations shall be governed by special laws and by the general provisions of this Code.

SEC. 106. Board of Trustees. –Trustees of educational institutions organized as nonstock corporations shall not be less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15): Provided, That the number of trustees shall be in multiples of five (5).

Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, the board of trustees of incorporated schools, colleges, or other institutions of learning shall, as soon as organized, so classify themselves that the term of office of one-fifth (1/5) of their number shall expire every year. Trustees thereafter elected to fill vacancies, occurring before the expiration of a particular term, shall hold office only for the unexpired period. Trustees elected thereafter to fill vacancies caused by expiration of term shall hold office for five (5) years. A majority of the trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The powers and authority of trustees shall be defined in the bylaws.

For institutions organized as stock corporations, the number and term of directors shall be governed by the provisions on stock corporations.

CHAPTER II
RELIGIOUS CORPORATIONS

SEC. 107. Classes of Religious Corporations. – Religious corporations may be incorporated by one or more persons. Such corporations may be classified into corporations sole and religious societies.

Religious corporations shall be governed by this Chapter and by the general provisions on nonstock corporations insofar as applicable.

SEC. 108. Corporation sole. – For the purpose of administering and managing, as trustee, the affairs, property and temporalities of any religious denomination, sect or church, a corporation sole may be formed by the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or other presiding elder of such religious denomination, sect, or church.

SEC. 109. Articles of incorporation. – In order to become a corporation sole, the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or presiding elder of any religious denomination, sect or church must file with the Commission articles of incorporation setting forth the following:

(a) That the applicant chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder represents the religious denomination, sect, or church which desires to become a corporation sole;

(b) That the rules, regulations and discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church are consistent with becoming a corporation sole and do not forbid it;

(c) That such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder is charged with the administration of the temporalities and the management of the affairs, estate and properties of the religious denomination, sect or church within the territorial jurisdiction, so described succinctly in the articles of incorporation;

(d) The manner by which any vacancy occurring in the office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder is required to be filled, according to the rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church; and

(e) The place where the principal office of the corporation sole is to be established and located, which place must be within the territory of the Philippines.

The articles of incorporation may include any other provision not contrary to law for the regulation of the affairs of the corporation.

SEC. 110. Submission of the Articles of Incorporation. – The articles of incorporation must be verified, by affidavit or affirmation of the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder, as the case may be, and accompanied by a copy of the commission, certificate of election or letter of appointment of such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder, duly certified to be correct by any notary public.

From and after filing with the Commission of the said articles of incorporation, verified by affidavit or affirmation, and accompanied by the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph, such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder shall become a corporation sole and all temporalities, estate and properties of the religious denomination, sect or church theretofore administered or managed as such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder shall be personally held in trust as a corporation sole, for the use, purpose exclusive benefit and on behalf of the religious denomination, sect or church, including hospitals, schools, colleges, orphan asylums, parsonages, and cemeteries thereof.

SEC. 111. Acquisition and Alienation of Property. – A corporation sole may purchase and hold real estate and personal property for its church, charitable, benevolent, or educational purposes, and may receive bequests or gifts for such purposes. Such corporation may sell or mortgage real property held by it by obtaining an order for that purpose from the Regional Trial Court of the province where the property is situated upon proof that the notice of the application for leave to sell or mortgage has been made through publication or as directed by the Court, and that it is in the interest of the corporation that leave to sell or mortgage be granted. The application for leave to sell or mortgage must be made by petition, duly verified, by the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder acting as corporation sole, and may be opposed by any member of the religious denomination, sect or church represented by the corporation sole: Provided, That in cases where the rules, regulations, and discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church, religious society, or order concerned represented by such corporation sole regulate the method of acquiring, holding, selling, and mortgaging real estate and personal property, such rules, regulations and discipline shall govern, and the intervention of the courts shall not be necessary.

SEC. 112. Filling of Vacancies. – The successors in office of any chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder in a corporation sole shall become the corporation sole on their accession to office and shall be permitted to transact business as such upon filing a copy of their commission, certificate of election, or letters of appointment, duly certified by any notary public with the Commission.

During any vacancy in the office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder of any religious denomination, sect or church incorporated as a corporation sole, the person or persons authorized by the rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church represented by the corporation sole to administer the temporalities and manage the affairs, estate, and properties of the corporation sole shall exercise all the powers and authority of the corporation sole during such vacancy.

SEC. 113. Dissolution. – A corporation sole may be dissolved and its affairs settled voluntarily by submitting to the Commission a verified declaration of dissolution, setting forth:

(a) The name of the corporation;

(b) The reason for dissolution and winding up;

(c) The authorization for the dissolution of the corporation by the particular religious denomination, sect or church; and

(d) The names and addresses of the persons who are to supervise the winding up of the affairs of the corporation.

Upon approval of such declaration of dissolution by the Commission, the corporation shall cease to carry on its operations except for the purpose of winding up its affairs.

SEC. 114. Religious Societies. – Unless forbidden by competent authority, the Constitution, pertinent rules, regulations, or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church of which it is a part, any religious society, religious order, diocese, synod, or district organization of any religious denomination, sect or church, may, upon written consent and/or by an affirmative vote at a meeting called for the purpose of at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership, incorporate for the administration of its temporalities or for the management of its affairs, properties, and estate by filing with the Commission, articles of incorporation verified by the affidavit of the presiding elder, secretary, or clerk or other member of such religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization of the religious denomination, sect or church, setting forth the following:

(a) That the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization is a religious organization of a religious denomination, sect or church;

(b) That at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership has given written consent or has voted to incorporate, at a duly convened meeting of the body;

(c) That the incorporation of the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization is not forbidden by competent authority or by the Constitution, rules, regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect or church of which it forms part;

(d) That the religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization desires to incorporate for the administration of its affairs, properties and estate;

(e) The place within the Philippines where the principal office of the corporation is to be established and located; and

(f) The names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the trustees, not less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15), elected by the religious society or religious order, or the diocese, synod, or district organization to serve for the first year or such other period as may be prescribed by the laws of the religious society or religious order, or of the diocese, synod, or district organization.

CHAPTER III
ONE PERSON CORPORATIONS

SEC. 115. Applicability of Provisions to One Person Corporations. – The provisions of this Title shall primarily apply to One Person Corporations. Other provisions of this Code apply suppletorily, except as otherwise provided in this Title.

SEC. 116. One Person Corporation. – A One Person Corporation is a corporation with a single stockholder: Provided, that only a natural person, trust, or an estate may form a One Person Corporation.

Banks and quasi-banks, pre-need, trust, insurance, public and publicly-listed companies, and non-chartered government-owned and -controlled corporations may not incorporate as One Person Corporations: Provided, further, That a natural person who is licensed to exercise a profession may not organize as a One Person Corporation for the purpose of exercising such profession except as otherwise provided under special laws.

SEC. 117. Minimum Capital Stock Required for One Person Corporation. – A One Person Corporation shall not be required to have a minimum authorized capital stock except as otherwise provided by special law.

SEC. 118. Articles of Incorporation. – A One Person Corporation shall file articles of incorporation in accordance with the requirements under Section 14 of this Code. It shall likewise substantially contain the following:
(a) If the single stockholder is a trust or an estate, the name, nationality, and residence of the trustee, administrator, executor, guardian, conservator, custodian, or other person exercising fiduciary duties together with the proof of such authority to act on behalf of the trust or estate; and

(b) Name, nationality, residence of the nominee and alternate nominee, and the extent, coverage and limitation of the authority.

SEC. 119. Bylaws.The One Person Corporation is not required to submit and file corporate bylaws.

SEC. 120. Display of Corporate Name. – A One Person Corporation shall indicate the letters “OPC” either below or at the end of its corporate name.

SEC. 121. Single Stockholder as Director, President. – The single stockholder shall be the sole director and president of the One Person Corporation.

SEC. 122. Treasurer, Corporate Secretary, and Other Officers. – Within fifteen (15) days from the issuance of its certificate of incorporation, the One Person Corporation shall appoint a treasurer, corporate secretary, and other officers as it may deem necessary, and notify the Commission thereof within five (5) days from appointment.

The single stockholder may not be appointed as the corporate secretary.

A single stockholder who is likewise the self-appointed treasurer of the corporation shall give a bond to the Commission in such a sum as may be required: Provided, That the said stockholder/treasurer shall undertake in writing to faithfully administer the One Person Corporation’s funds to be received as treasurer, and to disburse and invest the same according to the articles of incorporation as approved by the Commission. The bond shall be renewed every two (2) years or as often as may be required.

SEC. 123. Special Functions of the Corporate Secretary. – In addition to the functions designated by the One Person Corporation, the corporate secretary shall:

(a) Be responsible for maintaining the minutes book and/or records of the corporation;

(b) Notify the nominee or alternate nominee of the death or incapacity of the single stockholder, which notice shall be given no later than five (5) days from such occurrence;

(c) Notify the Commission of the death of the single stockholder within five (5) days from such occurrence and stating in such notice the names, residence addresses, and contact details of all known legal heirs; and

(d) Call the nominee or alternate nominee and the known legal heirs to a meeting and advise the legal heirs with regard to, among others, the election of a new director, amendment of the articles of incorporation, and other ancillary and/or consequential matters.

SEC. 124. Nominee and Alternate Nominee. – The single stockholder shall designate a nominee and an alternate nominee who shall, in the event of the single stockholder’s death or incapacity, take the place of the single stockholder as director and shall manage the corporation’s affairs.

The articles of incorporation shall state the names, residence addresses and contact details of the nominee and alternate nominee, as well as the extent and limitations of their authority in managing the affairs of the One Person Corporation.

The written consent of the nominee and alternate nominee shall be attached to the application for incorporation. Such consent may be withdrawn in writing any time before the death or incapacity of the single stockholder.

SEC. 125. Term of Nominee and Alternate Nominee. – When the incapacity of the single stockholder is temporary, the nominee shall sit as director and manage the affairs of the One Person Corporation until the stockholder, by self determination, regains the capacity to assume such duties.

In case of death or permanent incapacity of the single stockholder, the nominee shall sit as director and manage the affairs of the One Person Corporation until the legal heirs of the single stockholder have been lawfully determined, and the heirs have designated one of them or have agreed that the estate shall be the single stockholder of the One Person Corporation.

The alternate nominee shall sit as director and manage the One Person Corporation in case of the nominee’s inability, incapacity, death, or refusal to discharge the functions as director and manager of the corporation, and only for the same term and under the same conditions applicable to the nominee.

SEC. 126. Change of Nominee or Alternate Nominee. – The single stockholder may, at any time, change its nominee and alternate nominee by submitting to the Commission the names of the new nominees and their corresponding written consent. For this purpose, the articles of incorporation need not be amended.

SEC. 127. Minutes Book. – A One Person Corporation shall maintain a minutes book which shall contain all actions, decisions, and resolutions taken by the One Person Corporation.

SEC. 128. Records in Lieu of Meetings. – When action is needed on any matter, it shall be sufficient to prepare a written resolution, signed and dated by the single stockholder, and recorded in the minutes book of the One Person Corporation. The date of recording in the minutes book shall be deemed to be the date of the meeting for all purposes under this Code.

SEC. 129. Reportorial Requirements. – The One Person Corporation shall submit the following within such period as the Commission may prescribe:

(a) Annual financial statements audited by an independent certified public accountant: Provided, That if the total assets or total liabilities of the corporation are less than Six Hundred Thousand Pesos (P600,000.00), the financial statements shall be certified under oath by the corporation’s treasurer and president.

(b) A report containing explanations or comments by the president on every qualification, reservation, or adverse remark or disclaimer made by the auditor in the latter’s report;

(c) A disclosure of all self-dealings and related party transactions entered into between the One Person Corporation and the single stockholder; and

(d) Other reports as the Commission may require.

For purposes of this provision, the fiscal year of a One Person Corporation shall be that set forth in its articles of incorporation or, in the absence thereof, the calendar year.

The Commission may place the corporation under delinquent status should the corporation fail to submit the reportorial requirements three (3) times, consecutively or intermittently, within a period of five (5) years.

SEC. 130. Liability of Single Shareholder. – A sole shareholder claiming limited liability has the burden of affirmatively showing that the corporation was adequately financed.

Where the single stockholder cannot prove that the property of the One Person Corporation is independent of the stockholder’s personal property, the stockholder shall be jointly and severally liable for the debts and other liabilities of the One Person Corporation.

The principles of piercing the corporate veil applies with equal force to One Person Corporations as with other corporations.

SEC. 131. Conversion from an Ordinary Corporation to a One Person Corporation. – When a single stockholder acquires all the stocks of an ordinary stock corporation, the latter may apply for conversion into a One Person Corporation, subject to the submission of such documents as the Commission may require. If the application for conversion is approved, the Commission shall issue a certificate of filing of amended articles of incorporation reflecting the conversion. The One Person Corporation converted from an ordinary stock corporation shall succeed the latter and be legally responsible for all the latter’s outstanding liabilities as of the date of conversion.

SEC. 132. Conversion from a One Person Corporation to an Ordinary Stock Corporation. – A One Person Corporation may be converted into an ordinary stock corporation after due notice to the Commission of such fact and of the circumstances leading to the conversion, and after compliance with all other requirements for stock corporations under this Code and applicable rules. Such notice shall be filed with the Commission within sixty (60) days from the occurrence of the circumstances leading to the conversion into an ordinary stock corporation. If all requirements have been complied with, the Commission shall issue a certificate of filing of amended articles of incorporation reflecting the conversion.

In case of death of the single stockholder, the nominee or alternate nominee shall transfer the shares to the duly designated legal heir or estate within seven (7) days from receipt of either an affidavit of heirship or self-adjudication executed by a sole heir, or any other legal document declaring the legal heirs of the single stockholder and notify the Commission of the transfer. Within sixty (60) days from the transfer of the shares, the legal heirs shall notify the Commission of their decision to either wind up and dissolve the One Person Corporation or convert it into an ordinary stock corporation. The ordinary stock corporation converted from a One Person Corporation shall succeed the latter and be legally responsible for all the latter’s outstanding liabilities as of the date of conversion.


The Corporation Code of the Philippines
TITLE I – General Provisions
TITLE II – Incorporation and Organization of Private Corporation
TITLE III – Board of Directors/Trustees and Officers
TITLE IV – Powers of Corporations
TITLE V – By Laws
TITLE VI – Meetings
TITLE VII – Stocks and Stockholders
TITLE VIII – Corporate Books and Records
TITLE IX – Merger and Consolidation
TITLE X – Appraisal Right
TITLE XI – Non-Stock Corporations
TITLE XII – Close Corporations
TITLE XIII – Special Corporations
TITLE XIV – Dissolution
TITLE XV – Foreign Corporations
TITLE XVI – Investigations, Offenses and Penalties
TITLE XVII – Miscellaneous Provisions

A Quick Guide to the One Person Corporation (OPC) in the Philippines

Republic Act No. 11232 or the Revised Corporation Code of the Philippines now allows for the registration of a simplified version of a corporation.

Currently, the majority of corporations registered in the Philippines use nominee incorporators and directors. The new legal entity called One Person Corporation (OPC) will now allow for a sole shareholder, thus eliminating the need for nominees.

Many of the larger corporations in the Philippines will not do business with a Sole Proprietorship. The OPC erases this disadvantage while also including the benefit of limited legal liability.

Who Can Register an OPC

Only a natural person, trust, or an estate may form a One Person Corporation.

Who Cannot Register an OPC

Banks and quasi-banks, pre-need, trust, insurance, public and publicly-listed companies, and non-chartered government-owned and -controlled corporations may not incorporate as One Person Corporations. A natural person who is licensed to exercise a profession may not organize as a One Person Corporation for the purpose of exercising such profession except as otherwise provided under special laws.

Registration Requirements

Cover Sheet, Articles of Incorporation, written consent documents from Nominee and Alternate Nominee

By-laws are not required.

Corporate Officers

The single stockholder shall be the sole director and president of the One Person Corporation.
A treasurer and corporate secretary are also needed. In the case that the president also acts as treasurer, s/he shall give a surety bond to the SEC.

The president may not assume the role of corporate secretary. Both the treasurer and corporate secretary must be residents of the Philippines. The corporate secretary shall be a Filipino citizen.

Roles Played by Nominee and Alternate Nominee

The single stockholder shall designate a nominee and an alternate nominee who shall, in the event of the single stockholder’s death or incapacity, take the place of the single stockholder as director and shall manage the corporation’s affairs.

In case of death of the single stockholder, the nominee will manage the corporation only until the heirs designate his replacement.

Corporate Name

A One Person Corporation shall indicate the letters “OPC” either below or at the end of its corporate name.

OPC Conversion

An Ordinary Corporation may be converted to an OPC, and vice-versa.

One Person Corporation

The Revised Corporation Code 2019 of the Philippines or Republic Act No. 11232

Does a One Person Corporation (OPC) only need one individual to register?
Read below to find out the requirements to register an OPC.

 

One Person Corporation

1. Incorporators

A one person corporation (OPC) is a corporation with a single stockholder, who can only be a natural person, trust or estate.

The incorporator of an OPC being a natural person must of be of legal age.

2. Corporate Name

The suffix “OPC” should be indicated by the one person corporation either be-low or at the end of its corporate name.

3. Single Stockholder as Director and Officer

The single stockholder shall be the sole director and president of the OPC.

4. Designation of Nominee and Alternate Nominee

The single stockholder is required to designate a nominee and an alternate nominee named in the Articles of Incorporation who shall replace the single stockholder in the event of the latter’s death and/or incapacity. The written consent of both the nominee and alternate nominee shall be attached to the application for
incorporation.

5. Only Articles of Incorporation Needed

The OPC shall file its Articles of Incorporation (AI) in accordance with the requirements of Section 14 of the Revised Corporation Code of the Philippines. The AI must set forth its primary purpose, principal office address, term of existence, names and details of the single stockholder, the nominee and alternate nominee and the authorized, subscribed and paid-up capital and such other matters consistent with law and which may be deemed necessary and convenient.

6. Bylaws

The OPC is not required to submit and file its Bylaws.

7. Minimum Capital Stock Not Required

The OPC is not required to have a minimum authorized capital stock except as otherwise provided by special law.

Further, unless otherwise required by applicable laws or regulation, no portion of the authorized capital is required to be paid-up at the time of the incorporation.

8. Officers

Within fifteen (15) days from the issuance of its Certificate of Incorporation, the OPC shall appoint a Treasurer, Corporate Secretary, and other officers, and notify the SEC thereof within five (5) days from appointment, using the Appointment Form as may be prescribed by the SEC.

The single stockholder shall not be appointed as Corporate Secretary but may assume the role of a Treasurer.

9. Bond Requirement for the Self-Appointed Treasurer

The single stockholder who assumes the position of the Treasurer shall post a surety bond to be computed based on the authorized capital stock (ACS) for the OPC as shown in the Table below:

ACSSurety Bond Coverage*
1.00 to 1,000,000.001,000,000.00
1,000,001 to 2,000,000.002,000,000.00
2,000,001 to 3,000,000.003,000,000.00
3,000,001 to 4,000,000.004,000,000.00
4,000,001 to 5,000,000.005,000,000.00
P 5,000,001.00 and above = Amount of surety bond coverage shall be equal to the OPC’s ACS.

* Subject to renewal every two (2) years or as may be required, upon review of the annual submission of the Audited Financial Statements/Financial Statements certified under oath by the company’s President and Treasurer.

** The bond is a continuing requirement for so long as the single stockholder is the self-appointed Treasurer of the OPC.

*** The bond may be cancelled upon proof of appointment of another person as the Treasurer and Filing of the Amended Form for the Appointment of Officers.

10. Change of Nominee or Alternate Nominee

The single stockholder may, at any time, change its nominee and alternate nominee by submitting to the Commission the names of the nominees and their corresponding written consent. The Articles of Incorporation need not be amended.

11. Incapacity or Death of the Single Stockholder

In case the single stockholder becomes incapacitated, the nominee can take over the management of the OPC as director and president. At the end of the incapacity, the single stockholder can resume the management of the OPC.

In case of death or permanent incapacity of the single stockholder, the nominee will take over the management of the OPC until the legal heirs of the single stockholder have been lawfully determined and the heirs have agreed among themselves who will take the place of the deceased.

12. Who are Not Allowed to Form OPC’s

Banks, non-bank financial institutions, quasi-banks, pre-need, trust, insur-ance, public and publicly companies, non-chartered government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs) cannot incorporate as OPC.

A natural person who is licensed to exercise a profession may not organize as an OPC for the purpose of exercising such profession except as otherwise provided under special laws.

13. Foreign National

A foreign natural person may put up an OPC, subject to the applicable capital
requirement and constitutional and statutory restrictions on foreign participa-tion in certain invest areas or activities.

• Minimum required paid-in capital for a corporation with more than 40% foreign ownership catering to the Philippines domestic market USD200,000.00.

• Export Enterprises; minimum recommended paid-in capital PHP250,000.00.

• Export enterprises located in Philippine Economic Zone Authority approved IT Buildings are required to have a paid-in capital equivalent to 25% of the total project cost.

Required documents/information:

  • Company Name
  • Nature of Business
  • Filipino Director: Name and Address, 2 x Government IDs, Tax Identification Number (TIN).
  • Foreign Director: Name and Address, copy of passport
  • Office Address
  • Name and Address of Treasurer in Trust

TAX ID

Every shareholder, director and officer of the company is required to obtain a Philippines Tax Identification Number (TIN). A Special Power of Attorney is required, authorizing Dayanan to file the TIN application.

All documents signed overseas must be authenticated by a Philippine Embassy/Consulate or with an apostille affixed thereto.