One Person Corporation

The Revised Corporation Code 2019 of the Philippines or Republic Act No. 11232

Does a One Person Corporation (OPC) only need one individual to register?
Read below to find out the requirements to register an OPC.

1. Incorporators

A one person corporation (OPC) is a corporation with a single stockholder, who can only be a natural person, trust or estate.

The incorporator of an OPC being a natural person must of be of legal age.

2. Corporate Name

The suffix “OPC” should be indicated by the one person corporation either be-low or at the end of its corporate name.

3. Single Stockholder as Director and Officer

The single stockholder shall be the sole director and president of the OPC.

4. Designation of Nominee and Alternate Nominee

The single stockholder is required to designate a nominee and an alternate nominee named in the Articles of Incorporation who shall replace the single stockholder in the event of the latter’s death and/or incapacity. The written consent of both the nominee and alternate nominee shall be attached to the application for
incorporation.

5. Only Articles of Incorporation Needed

The OPC shall file its Articles of Incorporation (AI) in accordance with the requirements of Section 14 of the Revised Corporation Code of the Philippines. The AI must set forth its primary purpose, principal office address, term of existence, names and details of the single stockholder, the nominee and alternate nominee and the authorized, subscribed and paid-up capital and such other matters consistent with law and which may be deemed necessary and convenient.

6. Bylaws

The OPC is not required to submit and file its Bylaws.

7. Minimum Capital Stock Not Required

The OPC is not required to have a minimum authorized capital stock except as otherwise provided by special law.

Further, unless otherwise required by applicable laws or regulation, no portion of the authorized capital is required to be paid-up at the time of the incorporation.

8. Officers

Within fifteen (15) days from the issuance of its Certificate of Incorporation, the OPC shall appoint a Treasurer, Corporate Secretary, and other officers, and notify the SEC thereof within five (5) days from appointment, using the Appointment Form as may be prescribed by the SEC.

The single stockholder shall not be appointed as Corporate Secretary but may assume the role of a Treasurer.

9. Bond Requirement for the Self-Appointed Treasurer

The single stockholder who assumes the position of the Treasurer shall post a surety bond to be computed based on the authorized capital stock (ACS) for the OPC as shown in the Table below:

ACSSurety Bond Coverage*
1.00 to 1,000,000.001,000,000.00
1,000,001 to 2,000,000.002,000,000.00
2,000,001 to 3,000,000.003,000,000.00
3,000,001 to 4,000,000.004,000,000.00
4,000,001 to 5,000,000.005,000,000.00
P 5,000,001.00 and above = Amount of surety bond coverage shall be equal to the OPC’s ACS.

* Subject to renewal every two (2) years or as may be required, upon review of the annual submission of the Audited Financial Statements/Financial Statements certified under oath by the company’s President and Treasurer.

** The bond is a continuing requirement for so long as the single stockholder is the self-appointed Treasurer of the OPC.

*** The bond may be cancelled upon proof of appointment of another person as the Treasurer and Filing of the Amended Form for the Appointment of Officers.

10. Change of Nominee or Alternate Nominee

The single stockholder may, at any time, change its nominee and alternate nominee by submitting to the Commission the names of the nominees and their corresponding written consent. The Articles of Incorporation need not be amended.

11. Incapacity or Death of the Single Stockholder

In case the single stockholder becomes incapacitated, the nominee can take over the management of the OPC as director and president. At the end of the incapacity, the single stockholder can resume the management of the OPC.

In case of death or permanent incapacity of the single stockholder, the nominee will take over the management of the OPC until the legal heirs of the single stockholder have been lawfully determined and the heirs have agreed among themselves who will take the place of the deceased.

12. Who are Not Allowed to Form OPC’s

Banks, non-bank financial institutions, quasi-banks, pre-need, trust, insur-ance, public and publicly companies, non-chartered government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs) cannot incorporate as OPC.

A natural person who is licensed to exercise a profession may not organize as an OPC for the purpose of exercising such profession except as otherwise provided under special laws.

13. Foreign National

A foreign natural person may put up an OPC, subject to the applicable capital
requirement and constitutional and statutory restrictions on foreign participa-tion in certain invest areas or activities.

• Minimum required paid-in capital for a corporation with more than 40% foreign ownership catering to the Philippines domestic market USD200,000.00.

• Export Enterprises; minimum recommended paid-in capital PHP250,000.00.

• Export enterprises located in Philippine Economic Zone Authority approved IT Buildings are required to have a paid-in capital equivalent to 25% of the total project cost.

Required documents/information:

  • Company Name
  • Nature of Business
  • Filipino Director: Name and Address, 2 x Government IDs, Tax Identification Number (TIN).
  • Foreign Director: Name and Address, copy of passport
  • Office Address
  • Name and Address of Treasurer in Trust

TAX ID

Every shareholder, director and officer of the company is required to obtain a Philippines Tax Identification Number (TIN). A Special Power of Attorney is required, authorizing Dayanan to file the TIN application.

All documents signed overseas must be authenticated by a Philippine Embassy/Consulate or with an apostille affixed thereto.

What You Need to Know about Business Permits in the Philippines

Philippines Business RegistrationEvery business whether a corporation or partnership registered with the SEC or a sole proprietorship registered with the DTI is under the obligation to immediately obtain business permits in the municipalities where they operate.
Corporations whether PEZA registered or not operating without the necessary business permits will incur fines, penalties or closure from the BIR or City Hall.

Registration is required for every separate or distinct establishment or place of business including facility types where sales transactions occur and warehouse where inventory of goods for sale are kept, and must be obtained before commencement of business and payment of any tax due.

BIR FINES

Failure to Register

– Fine of not less than P5,000 but not more than P20,000 and imprisonment of not less than 6 months but not more than 2 years.

Compromise Fees

a. Cities 20,000
b. 1st class municipalities 10,000
c. 2nd class municipalities 5,000
d. 3rd class municipalities 2,000

Official Receipts

Failure to issue receipts/invoices 1st violation 10,000 – 2nd violation 20,000
Refusal to issue receipts/invoices 1st violation 25,000 – 2nd violation 50,000

The above are just a few of the penalties that the BIR may impose.

Mayor’s Permit

None registration with City Hall has its own penalties;

Makati City Penalty example:
SEC. 3A.11. Penalty – Any violation of the provisions of this Article shall be punished by a fine of not less than One Thousands Pesos (P 1,000.00) nor more than Five Thousands Pesos (P 5,000.00), or imprisonment of not less than one (1) month not more than five (5) months, or both, at the discretion of the Court.

The above does not includes a surcharge of 25% for late payments and a 2% monthly interest on the unpaid taxes, fees or charges including surcharges.

The documentation required varies according to the municipality, below are listed :

– Barangay Clearance/Permit for the new year
– Previous Year’s Business Permit
– Financial Statement/ Income Tax Return for the preceding year
– Latest Community Tax Certificate
– Contract of Lease/ Lessor’s Permit
– Comprehensive General Liability Insurance
– List of Company Employees with Medical Certificates

Documentary requirements may vary from year to year, we recommend that you check for changes before filing your business permit renewal with City Hall.

Annual Mayor’s Permit Fees (business tax) vary according to the nature of the company’s business, the company’s preceding years gross sales are used to calculate the amount of tax due which can be less than 1% to 3% or more, regardless of when the business started to operate .

In the case of a newly-started business the initial tax for the year shall be calculated on the capital investment or paid up capital, contract of lease and size of office.

All business permits should be prominently displayed in every location where business is transacted.

Branch Office Registration

Philippines Branch Office

One of the ways for a foreign corporation to start business in the Philippines is to register a branch office. A Philippines branch office may start its operations as soon as the SEC has issued its license to transact business.

SEC Branch Office Registration Process

1 – Name Verification Slip (The SEC will conduct a name search to check if the corporate name has any similitude with a corporation already registered with the SEC).

2 – Authenticated copy of Board resolution authorizing the establishment of an office in the Philippines: designating the resident agent to whom summons and other legal processes may be served in behalf of the foreign corporation and stipulating that in the absence of such agent or upon cessation of its business in the Philippines, any summon of legal processes may be served to SEC as if the same is made upon the corporation at its home office.

3 – Financial statements

A. For those whose home country requires audited financial statements, the applicant shall submit the audited financial statements (AFS) as of date not exceeding one (1) year immediately prior to the filing of the application;

If the date of the AFS exceeds the one-year requirement, the following shall be submitted:
i. Audited financial statements that are available as of date of filing of the application; and
ii. Unaudited financial statements (UFS) as of date not exceeding one (1) year immediately prior to the filing of the application.

B. For those whose home country does not require audited financial statements, the applicant shall submit the unaudited financial statements (UFS) as of a date not exceeding one (1) year immediately prior to the filing of the application provided that the UFS shall be accompanied by a Certification signed under oath by an officer of a responsible regulatory institution or by the applicant’s legal counsel that the applicant is not required to prepare and submit audited financial statements, with a citation of the law or regulation on which it is based.

The aforementioned AFS and UFS must be signed under oath by the president or any other person authorized by the corporation. No authentication shall be necessary if the signatory to the said financial statements is the same as that in the corporation’s application.

Pursuant to Section 125 of the Corporation Code, the applicant’s financial statements must show that it is solvent and in sound financial condition.

4 – Certified copies of the Articles of Incorporation/By-laws/Partnership/Memorandum and Articles of Association with an English translation thereof if in a foreign language.

5 – Proof of Inward Remittance such as bank certificate of inward remittance or
credit advices. *

6 – Resident Agent’s acceptance of appointment (not necessary if agent is the signatory in the application form.

7 – Copy of passports, names and addresses of the present Corporate Directors and Officers with English translation.

Advise when setting up a branch office:

All documents must be in English and authenticated by the Philippines Embassy/Consulate of the home country.

* Minimum inward remittance of USD 200,000.00 as capital investment. Branches which use advanced technology or employ a minimum of 50 direct employees may be allowed a reduced paid-in capital of USD 100,000.00. Companies which export more than 60% of their products or services may apply for an exemption.

The SEC requires that within sixty days from the issuance of the license to transact business in the Philippines a foreign corporation (except foreign banking or Insurance Corporation) is obligated to deposit with the SEC satisfactory securities with an actual market value of P100,000 in order to secure present and future creditors of the licensee in the Philippines. That within six (6) months after each fiscal year of the licensee, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall require the licensee to deposit additional securities equivalent in actual market value to two (2%) percent of the amount by which the licensee’s gross income for that fiscal year exceeds five million (P5,000,000.00) pesos. (Corporation Code of the Philippines Section 126)

We recommend that the inward remittance be registered with the Central Bank of the Philippines, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.

A foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines without having been licensed by the SEC does not have the right to file any action, suit or proceedings in Philippine courts of law.

Eligible companies may apply for Philippine tax incentives by registering with the PEZA or BOI.

After the SEC has issued the License to Transact Dayanan Business Consultancy will assist you in obtaining local business permits.

The corporation code of the Philippines in Title XV gives the definition and rights of a foreign corporation in the Philippines to conduct business.