The Corporation Code of the Philippines 15

THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES
[Batas Pambansa Blg. 68]

TITLE XV

FOREIGN CORPORATIONS

Section 123. Definition and rights of foreign corporations. – For the purposes of this Code, a foreign corporation is one formed, organized or existing under any laws other than those of the Philippines and whose laws allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do business in its own country or state. It shall have the right to transact business in the Philippines after it shall have obtained a license to transact business in this country in accordance with this Code and a certificate of authority from the appropriate government agency. (n)

Section 124. Application to existing foreign corporations. – Every foreign corporation which on the date of the effectivity of this Code is authorized to do business in the Philippines under a license therefore issued to it, shall continue to have such authority under the terms and condition of its license, subject to the provisions of this Code and other special laws. (n)

Section 125. Application for a license. – A foreign corporation applying for a license to transact business in the Philippines shall submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission a copy of its articles of incorporation and by-laws, certified in accordance with law, and their translation to an official language of the Philippines, if necessary. The application shall be under oath and, unless already stated in its articles of incorporation, shall specifically set forth the following:

1. The date and term of incorporation;

2. The address, including the street number, of the principal office of the corporation in the country or state of incorporation;

3. The name and address of its resident agent authorized to accept summons and process in all legal proceedings and, pending the establishment of a local office, all notices affecting the corporation;

4. The place in the Philippines where the corporation intends to operate;

5. The specific purpose or purposes which the corporation intends to pursue in the transaction of its business in the Philippines: Provided, That said purpose or purposes are those specifically stated in the certificate of authority issued by the appropriate government agency;

6. The names and addresses of the present directors and officers of the corporation;

7. A statement of its authorized capital stock and the aggregate number of shares which the corporation has authority to issue, itemized by classes, par value of shares, shares without par value, and series, if any;

8. A statement of its outstanding capital stock and the aggregate number of shares which the corporation has issued, itemized by classes, par value of shares, shares without par value, and series, if any;

9. A statement of the amount actually paid in; and

10. Such additional information as may be necessary or appropriate in order to enable the Securities and Exchange Commission to determine whether such corporation is entitled to a license to transact business in the Philippines, and to determine and assess the fees payable.

Attached to the application for license shall be a duly executed certificate under oath by the authorized official or officials of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, attesting to the fact that the laws of the country or state of the applicant allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do business therein, and that the applicant is an existing corporation in good standing. If such certificate is in a foreign language, a translation thereof in English under oath of the translator shall be attached thereto.

The application for a license to transact business in the Philippines shall likewise be accompanied by a statement under oath of the president or any other person authorized by the corporation, showing to the satisfaction of the Securities and Exchange Commission and other governmental agency in the proper cases that the applicant is solvent and in sound financial condition, and setting forth the assets and liabilities of the corporation as of the date not exceeding one (1) year immediately prior to the filing of the application.

Foreign banking, financial and insurance corporations shall, in addition to the above requirements, comply with the provisions of existing laws applicable to them. In the case of all other foreign corporations, no application for license to transact business in the Philippines shall be accepted by the Securities and Exchange Commission without previous authority from the appropriate government agency, whenever required by law. (68a)

Section 126. Issuance of a license. – If the Securities and Exchange Commission is satisfied that the applicant has complied with all the requirements of this Code and other special laws, rules and regulations, the Commission shall issue a license to the applicant to transact business in the Philippines for the purpose or purposes specified in such license. Upon issuance of the license, such foreign corporation may commence to transact business in the Philippines and continue to do so for as long as it retains its authority to act as a corporation under the laws of the country or state of its incorporation, unless such license is sooner surrendered, revoked, suspended or annulled in accordance with this Code or other special laws.

Within sixty (60) days after the issuance of the license to transact business in the Philippines, the license, except foreign banking or insurance corporation, shall deposit with the Securities and Exchange Commission for the benefit of present and future creditors of the licensee in the Philippines, securities satisfactory to the Securities and Exchange Commission, consisting of bonds or other evidence of indebtedness of the Government of the Philippines, its political subdivisions and instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, shares of stock in “registered enterprises” as this term is defined in Republic Act No. 5186, shares of stock in domestic corporations registered in the stock exchange, or shares of stock in domestic insurance companies and banks, or any combination of these kinds of securities, with an actual market value of at least one hundred thousand (P100,000.) pesos; Provided, however, That within six (6) months after each fiscal year of the licensee, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall require the licensee to deposit additional securities equivalent in actual market value to two (2%) percent of the amount by which the licensee’s gross income for that fiscal year exceeds five million (P5,000,000.00) pesos. The Securities and Exchange Commission shall also require deposit of additional securities if the actual market value of the securities on deposit has decreased by at least ten (10%) percent of their actual market value at the time they were deposited. The Securities and Exchange Commission may at its discretion release part of the additional securities deposited with it if the gross income of the licensee has decreased, or if the actual market value of the total securities on deposit has increased, by more than ten (10%) percent of the actual market value of the securities at the time they were deposited. The Securities and Exchange Commission may, from time to time, allow the licensee to substitute other securities for those already on deposit as long as the licensee is solvent. Such licensee shall be entitled to collect the interest or dividends on the securities deposited. In the event the licensee ceases to do business in the Philippines, the securities deposited as aforesaid shall be returned, upon the licensee’s application therefor and upon proof to the satisfaction of the Securities and Exchange Commission that the licensee has no liability to Philippine residents, including the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. (n)

Section 127. Who may be a resident agent. – A resident agent may be either an individual residing in the Philippines or a domestic corporation lawfully transacting business in the Philippines: Provided, That in the case of an individual, he must be of good moral character and of sound financial standing. (n)

Section 128. Resident agent; service of process. – The Securities and Exchange Commission shall require as a condition precedent to the issuance of the license to transact business in the Philippines by any foreign corporation that such corporation file with the Securities and Exchange Commission a written power of attorney designating some person who must be a resident of the Philippines, on whom any summons and other legal processes may be served in all actions or other legal proceedings against such corporation, and consenting that service upon such resident agent shall be admitted and held as valid as if served upon the duly authorized officers of the foreign corporation at its home office. Any such foreign corporation shall likewise execute and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission an agreement or stipulation, executed by the proper authorities of said corporation, in form and substance as follows:

“The (name of foreign corporation) does hereby stipulate and agree, in consideration of its being granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission a license to transact business in the Philippines, that if at any time said corporation shall cease to transact business in the Philippines, or shall be without any resident agent in the Philippines on whom any summons or other legal processes may be served, then in any action or proceeding arising out of any business or transaction which occurred in the Philippines, service of any summons or other legal process may be made upon the Securities and Exchange Commission and that such service shall have the same force and effect as if made upon the duly-authorized officers of the corporation at its home office.”

Whenever such service of summons or other process shall be made upon the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Commission shall, within ten (10) days thereafter, transmit by mail a copy of such summons or other legal process to the corporation at its home or principal office. The sending of such copy by the Commission shall be necessary part of and shall complete such service. All expenses incurred by the Commission for such service shall be paid in advance by the party at whose instance the service is made.

In case of a change of address of the resident agent, it shall be his or its duty to immediately notify in writing the Securities and Exchange Commission of the new address. (72a; and n)

Section 129. Law applicable. – Any foreign corporation lawfully doing business in the Philippines shall be bound by all laws, rules and regulations applicable to domestic corporations of the same class, except such only as provide for the creation, formation, organization or dissolution of corporations or those which fix the relations, liabilities, responsibilities, or duties of stockholders, members, or officers of corporations to each other or to the corporation. (73a)

Section 130. Amendments to articles of incorporation or by-laws of foreign corporations. – Whenever the articles of incorporation or by-laws of a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines are amended, such foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after the amendment becomes effective, file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and in the proper cases with the appropriate government agency, a duly authenticated copy of the articles of incorporation or by-laws, as amended, indicating clearly in capital letters or by underscoring the change or changes made, duly certified by the authorized official or officials of the country or state of incorporation. The filing thereof shall not of itself enlarge or alter the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is authorized to transact business in the Philippines. (n)

Section 131. Amended license. – A foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall obtain an amended license in the event it changes its corporate name, or desires to pursue in the Philippines other or additional purposes, by submitting an application therefor to the Securities and Exchange Commission, favorably endorsed by the appropriate government agency in the proper cases. (n)

Section 132. Merger or consolidation involving a foreign corporation licensed in the Philippines. – One or more foreign corporations authorized to transact business in the Philippines may merge or consolidate with any domestic corporation or corporations if such is permitted under Philippine laws and by the law of its incorporation: Provided, That the requirements on merger or consolidation as provided in this Code are followed.

Whenever a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall be a party to a merger or consolidation in its home country or state as permitted by the law of its incorporation, such foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after such merger or consolidation becomes effective, file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and in proper cases with the appropriate government agency, a copy of the articles of merger or consolidation duly authenticated by the proper official or officials of the country or state under the laws of which merger or consolidation was effected: Provided, however, That if the absorbed corporation is the foreign corporation doing business in the Philippines, the latter shall at the same time file a petition for withdrawal of it license in accordance with this Title. (n)

Section 133. Doing business without a license. – No foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines without a license, or its successors or assigns, shall be permitted to maintain or intervene in any action, suit or proceeding in any court or administrative agency of the Philippines; but such corporation may be sued or proceeded against before Philippine courts or administrative tribunals on any valid cause of action recognized under Philippine laws. (69a)

Section 134. Revocation of license. – Without prejudice to other grounds provided by special laws, the license of a foreign corporation to transact business in the Philippines may be revoked or suspended by the Securities and Exchange Commission upon any of the following grounds:

1. Failure to file its annual report or pay any fees as required by this Code;

2. Failure to appoint and maintain a resident agent in the Philippines as required by this Title;

3. Failure, after change of its resident agent or of his address, to submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission a statement of such change as required by this Title;

4. Failure to submit to the Securities and Exchange Commission an authenticated copy of any amendment to its articles of incorporation or by-laws or of any articles of merger or consolidation within the time prescribed by this Title;

5. A misrepresentation of any material matter in any application, report, affidavit or other document submitted by such corporation pursuant to this Title;

6. Failure to pay any and all taxes, imposts, assessments or penalties, if any, lawfully due to the Philippine Government or any of its agencies or political subdivisions;

7. Transacting business in the Philippines outside of the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is authorized under its license;

8. Transacting business in the Philippines as agent of or acting for and in behalf of any foreign corporation or entity not duly licensed to do business in the Philippines; or

9. Any other ground as would render it unfit to transact business in the Philippines. (n)

Section 135. Issuance of certificate of revocation. – Upon the revocation of any such license to transact business in the Philippines, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall issue a corresponding certificate of revocation, furnishing a copy thereof to the appropriate government agency in the proper cases.

The Securities and Exchange Commission shall also mail to the corporation at its registered office in the Philippines a notice of such revocation accompanied by a copy of the certificate of revocation. (n)

Section 136. Withdrawal of foreign corporations. – Subject to existing laws and regulations, a foreign corporation licensed to transact business in the Philippines may be allowed to withdraw from the Philippines by filing a petition for withdrawal of license. No certificate of withdrawal shall be issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission unless all the following requirements are met;

1. All claims which have accrued in the Philippines have been paid, compromised or settled;

2. All taxes, imposts, assessments, and penalties, if any, lawfully due to the Philippine Government or any of its agencies or political subdivisions have been paid; and

3. The petition for withdrawal of license has been published once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.

The Corporation Code of the Philippines
TITLE I General Provisions
TITLE II Incorporation and Organization of Private Corporations
TITLE III Board of Directors Trustees Officers
TITLE IV Powers of Corporations
TITLE V By Laws
TITLE VI Meetings
TITLE VII Stocks and Stockholders
TITLE VIII Corporate Books and Records
TITLE IX Merger and Consolidation
TITLE X Appraisal Right
TITLE XI Non-Stock Corporations
TITLE XII Close Corporations
TITLE XIII Special Corporations
TITLE XIV Dissolution
TITLE XV Foreign Corporations
TITLE XVI Miscellaneous Provisions

The Corporation Code of the Philippines 7

THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

[Batas Pambansa Blg. 68]

TITLE VII

STOCKS AND STOCKHOLDERS

Section 60. Subscription contract. – Any contract for the acquisition of unissued stock in an existing corporation or a corporation still to be formed shall be deemed a subscription within the meaning of this Title, notwithstanding the fact that the parties refer to it as a purchase or some other contract. (n)

Section 61. Pre-incorporation subscription. – A subscription for shares of stock of a corporation still to be formed shall be irrevocable for a period of at least six (6) months from the date of subscription, unless all of the other subscribers consent to the revocation, or unless the incorporation of said corporation fails to materialize within said period or within a longer period as may be stipulated in the contract of subscription: Provided, That no pre-incorporation subscription may be revoked after the submission of the articles of incorporation to the Securities and Exchange Commission. (n)

Section 62. Considering for stocks. – Stocks shall not be issued for a consideration less than the par or issued price thereof. Consideration for the issuance of stock may be any or a combination of any two or more of the following:

1. Actual cash paid to the corporation;

2. Property, tangible or intangible, actually received by the corporation and necessary or convenient for its use and lawful purposes at a fair valuation equal to the par or issued value of the stock issued;

3. Labor performed for or services actually rendered to the corporation;

4. Previously incurred indebtedness of the corporation;

5. Amounts transferred from unrestricted retained earnings to stated capital; and

6. Outstanding shares exchanged for stocks in the event of reclassification or conversion.

Where the consideration is other than actual cash, or consists of intangible property such as patents of copyrights, the valuation thereof shall initially be determined by the incorporators or the board of directors, subject to approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Shares of stock shall not be issued in exchange for promissory notes or future service.

The same considerations provided for in this section, insofar as they may be applicable, may be used for the issuance of bonds by the corporation.

The issued price of no-par value shares may be fixed in the articles of incorporation or by the board of directors pursuant to authority conferred upon it by the articles of incorporation or the by-laws, or in the absence thereof, by the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock at a meeting duly called for the purpose. (5 and 16)

Section 63. Certificate of stock and transfer of shares. – The capital stock of stock corporations shall be divided into shares for which certificates signed by the president or vice president, countersigned by the secretary or assistant secretary, and sealed with the seal of the corporation shall be issued in accordance with the by-laws. Shares of stock so issued are personal property and may be transferred by delivery of the certificate or certificates endorsed by the owner or his attorney-in-fact or other person legally authorized to make the transfer. No transfer, however, shall be valid, except as between the parties, until the transfer is recorded in the books of the corporation showing the names of the parties to the transaction, the date of the transfer, the number of the certificate or certificates and the number of shares transferred.

No shares of stock against which the corporation holds any unpaid claim shall be transferable in the books of the corporation. (35)

Section 64. Issuance of stock certificates. – No certificate of stock shall be issued to a subscriber until the full amount of his subscription together with interest and expenses (in case of delinquent shares), if any is due, has been paid. (37)

Section 65. Liability of directors for watered stocks. – Any director or officer of a corporation consenting to the issuance of stocks for a consideration less than its par or issued value or for a consideration in any form other than cash, valued in excess of its fair value, or who, having knowledge thereof, does not forthwith express his objection in writing and file the same with the corporate secretary, shall be solidarily, liable with the stockholder concerned to the corporation and its creditors for the difference between the fair value received at the time of issuance of the stock and the par or issued value of the same. (n)

Section 66. Interest on unpaid subscriptions. – Subscribers for stock shall pay to the corporation interest on all unpaid subscriptions from the date of subscription, if so required by, and at the rate of interest fixed in the by-laws. If no rate of interest is fixed in the by-laws, such rate shall be deemed to be the legal rate. (37)

Section 67. Payment of balance of subscription. – Subject to the provisions of the contract of subscription, the board of directors of any stock corporation may at any time declare due and payable to the corporation unpaid subscriptions to the capital stock and may collect the same or such percentage thereof, in either case with accrued interest, if any, as it may deem necessary.

Payment of any unpaid subscription or any percentage thereof, together with the interest accrued, if any, shall be made on the date specified in the contract of subscription or on the date stated in the call made by the board. Failure to pay on such date shall render the entire balance due and payable and shall make the stockholder liable for interest at the legal rate on such balance, unless a different rate of interest is provided in the by-laws, computed from such date until full payment. If within thirty (30) days from the said date no payment is made, all stocks covered by said subscription shall thereupon become delinquent and shall be subject to sale as hereinafter provided, unless the board of directors orders otherwise. (38)

Section 68. Delinquency sale. – The board of directors may, by resolution, order the sale of delinquent stock and shall specifically state the amount due on each subscription plus all accrued interest, and the date, time and place of the sale which shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more than sixty (60) days from the date the stocks become delinquent.

Notice of said sale, with a copy of the resolution, shall be sent to every delinquent stockholder either personally or by registered mail. The same shall furthermore be published once a week for two (2) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the province or city where the principal office of the corporation is located.

Unless the delinquent stockholder pays to the corporation, on or before the date specified for the sale of the delinquent stock, the balance due on his subscription, plus accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, or unless the board of directors otherwise orders, said delinquent stock shall be sold at public auction to such bidder who shall offer to pay the full amount of the balance on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share. The stock so purchased shall be transferred to such purchaser in the books of the corporation and a certificate for such stock shall be issued in his favor. The remaining shares, if any, shall be credited in favor of the delinquent stockholder who shall likewise be entitled to the issuance of a certificate of stock covering such shares.

Should there be no bidder at the public auction who offers to pay the full amount of the balance on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of sale, for the smallest number of shares or fraction of a share, the corporation may, subject to the provisions of this Code, bid for the same, and the total amount due shall be credited as paid in full in the books of the corporation. Title to all the shares of stock covered by the subscription shall be vested in the corporation as treasury shares and may be disposed of by said corporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Section 69. When sale may be questioned. – No action to recover delinquent stock sold can be sustained upon the ground of irregularity or defect in the notice of sale, or in the sale itself of the delinquent stock, unless the party seeking to maintain such action first pays or tenders to the party holding the stock the sum for which the same was sold, with interest from the date of sale at the legal rate; and no such action shall be maintained unless it is commenced by the filing of a complaint within six (6) months from the date of sale. (47a)

Section 70. Court action to recover unpaid subscription. – Nothing in this Code shall prevent the corporation from collecting by action in a court of proper jurisdiction the amount due on any unpaid subscription, with accrued interest, costs and expenses. (49a)

Section 71. Effect of delinquency. – No delinquent stock shall be voted for be entitled to vote or to representation at any stockholder’s meeting, nor shall the holder thereof be entitled to any of the rights of a stockholder except the right to dividends in accordance with the provisions of this Code, until and unless he pays the amount due on his subscription with accrued interest, and the costs and expenses of advertisement, if any. (50a)

Section 72. Rights of unpaid shares. – Holders of subscribed shares not fully paid which are not delinquent shall have all the rights of a stockholder. (n)

Section 73. Lost or destroyed certificates. – The following procedure shall be followed for the issuance by a corporation of new certificates of stock in lieu of those which have been lost, stolen or destroyed:

1. The registered owner of a certificate of stock in a corporation or his legal representative shall file with the corporation an affidavit in triplicate setting forth, if possible, the circumstances as to how the certificate was lost, stolen or destroyed, the number of shares represented by such certificate, the serial number of the certificate and the name of the corporation which issued the same. He shall also submit such other information and evidence which he may deem necessary;

2. After verifying the affidavit and other information and evidence with the books of the corporation, said corporation shall publish a notice in a newspaper of general circulation published in the place where the corporation has its principal office, once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks at the expense of the registered owner of the certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed. The notice shall state the name of said corporation, the name of the registered owner and the serial number of said certificate, and the number of shares represented by such certificate, and that after the expiration of one (1) year from the date of the last publication, if no contest has been presented to said corporation regarding said certificate of stock, the right to make such contest shall be barred and said corporation shall cancel in its books the certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed and issue in lieu thereof new certificate of stock, unless the registered owner files a bond or other security in lieu thereof as may be required, effective for a period of one (1) year, for such amount and in such form and with such sureties as may be satisfactory to the board of directors, in which case a new certificate may be issued even before the expiration of the one (1) year period provided herein: Provided, That if a contest has been presented to said corporation or if an action is pending in court regarding the ownership of said certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed, the issuance of the new certificate of stock in lieu thereof shall be suspended until the final decision by the court regarding the ownership of said certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or destroyed.

Except in case of fraud, bad faith, or negligence on the part of the corporation and its officers, no action may be brought against any corporation which shall have issued certificate of stock in lieu of those lost, stolen or destroyed pursuant to the procedure above-described. (R. A. 201a)

The Corporation Code of the Philippines
TITLE I General Provisions
TITLE II Incorporation and Organization of Private Corporations
TITLE III Board of Directors Trustees Officers
TITLE IV Powers of Corporations
TITLE V By Laws
TITLE VI Meetings
TITLE VII Stocks and Stockholders
TITLE VIII Corporate Books and Records
TITLE IX Merger and Consolidation
TITLE X Appraisal Right
TITLE XI Non-Stock Corporations
TITLE XII Close Corporations
TITLE XIII Special Corporations
TITLE XIV Dissolution
TITLE XV Foreign Corporations
TITLE XVI Miscellaneous Provisions

The Corporation Code of the Philippines 5

THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES
[Batas Pambansa Blg. 68]

TITLE V

BY LAWS

Section 46. Adoption of by-laws. – Every corporation formed under this Code must, within one (1) month after receipt of official notice of the issuance of its certificate of incorporation by the Securities and Exchange Commission, adopt a code of by-laws for its government not inconsistent with this Code. For the adoption of by-laws by the corporation the affirmative vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or of at least a majority of the members in case of non-stock corporations, shall be necessary. The by-laws shall be signed by the stockholders or members voting for them and shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation, subject to the inspection of the stockholders or members during office hours. A copy thereof, duly certified to by a majority of the directors or trustees countersigned by the secretary of the corporation, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission which shall be attached to the original articles of incorporation.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, by-laws may be adopted and filed prior to incorporation; in such case, such by-laws shall be approved and signed by all the incorporators and submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission, together with the articles of incorporation.

In all cases, by-laws shall be effective only upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange Commission of a certification that the by-laws are not inconsistent with this Code.

The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept for filing the by-laws or any amendment thereto of any bank, banking institution, building and loan association, trust company, insurance company, public utility, educational institution or other special corporations governed by special laws, unless accompanied by a certificate of the appropriate government agency to the effect that such by-laws or amendments are in accordance with law. (20a)

Section 47. Contents of by-laws. – Subject to the provisions of the Constitution, this Code, other special laws, and the articles of incorporation, a private corporation may provide in its by-laws for:

1. The time, place and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the directors or trustees;

2. The time and manner of calling and conducting regular or special meetings of the stockholders or members;

3. The required quorum in meetings of stockholders or members and the manner of voting therein;

4. The form for proxies of stockholders and members and the manner of voting them;

5. The qualifications, duties and compensation of directors or trustees, officers and employees;

6. The time for holding the annual election of directors of trustees and the mode or manner of giving notice thereof;

7. The manner of election or appointment and the term of office of all officers other than directors or trustees;

8. The penalties for violation of the by-laws;

9. In the case of stock corporations, the manner of issuing stock certificates; and

10. Such other matters as may be necessary for the proper or convenient transaction of its corporate business and affairs. (21a)

Section 48. Amendments to by-laws. – The board of directors or trustees, by a majority vote thereof, and the owners of at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or at least a majority of the members of a non-stock corporation, at a regular or special meeting duly called for the purpose, may amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws. The owners of two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a non-stock corporation may delegate to the board of directors or trustees the power to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws: Provided, That any power delegated to the board of directors or trustees to amend or repeal any by-laws or adopt new by-laws shall be considered as revoked whenever stockholders owning or representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in non-stock corporations, shall so vote at a regular or special meeting.

Whenever any amendment or new by-laws are adopted, such amendment or new by-laws shall be attached to the original by-laws in the office of the corporation, and a copy thereof, duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees, shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission the same to be attached to the original articles of incorporation and original by-laws.

The amended or new by-laws shall only be effective upon the issuance by the Securities and Exchange Commission of a certification that the same are not inconsistent with this Code. (22a and 23a)

The Corporation Code of the Philippines
TITLE I General Provisions
TITLE II Incorporation and Organization of Private Corporations
TITLE III Board of Directors Trustees Officers
TITLE IV Powers of Corporations
TITLE V By Laws
TITLE VI Meetings
TITLE VII Stocks and Stockholders
TITLE VIII Corporate Books and Records
TITLE IX Merger and Consolidation
TITLE X Appraisal Right
TITLE XI Non-Stock Corporations
TITLE XII Close Corporations
TITLE XIII Special Corporations
TITLE XIV Dissolution
TITLE XV Foreign Corporations
TITLE XVI Miscellaneous Provisions

The Corporation Code of the Philippines 2

THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES
[Batas Pambansa Blg. 68]

TITLE II

INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION
OF PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

Sec. 10. Number and qualifications of incorporators. – Any number of natural persons not less than five (5) but not more than fifteen (15), all of legal age and a majority of whom are residents of the Philippines, may form a private corporation for any lawful purpose or purposes. Each of the incorporators of s stock corporation must own or be a subscriber to at least one (1) share of the capital stock of the corporation.

Sec. 11. Corporate term. – A corporation shall exist for a period not exceeding fifty (50) years from the date of incorporation unless sooner dissolved or unless said period is extended. The corporate term as originally stated in the articles of incorporation may be extended for periods not exceeding fifty (50) years in any single instance by an amendment of the articles of incorporation, in accordance with this Code; Provided, That no extension can be made earlier than five (5) years prior to the original or subsequent expiry date(s) unless there are justifiable reasons for an earlier extension as may be determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Sec. 12. Minimum capital stock required of stock corporations. – Stock corporations incorporated under this Code shall not be required to have any minimum authorized capital stock except as otherwise specifically provided for by special law, and subject to the provisions of the following section.

Sec. 13. Amount of capital stock to be subscribed and paid for the purposes of incorporation. – At least twenty-five percent (25%) of the authorized capital stock as stated in the articles of incorporation must be subscribed at the time of incorporation, and at least twenty-five (25%) per cent of the total subscription must be paid upon subscription, the balance to be payable on a date or dates fixed in the contract of subscription without need of call, or in the absence of a fixed date or dates, upon call for payment by the board of directors: Provided, however, That in no case shall the paid-up capital be less than five Thousand (P5,000.00) pesos.

Sec. 14. Contents of the articles of incorporation. – All corporations organized under this code shall file with the Securities and Exchange Commission articles of incorporation in any of the official languages duly signed and acknowledged by all of the incorporators, containing substantially the following matters, except as otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law:

1. The name of the corporation;
2. The specific purpose or purposes for which the corporation is being incorporated. Where a corporation has more than one stated purpose, the articles of incorporation shall state which is the primary purpose and which is/are he secondary purpose or purposes: Provided, That a non-stock corporation may not include a purpose which would change or contradict its nature as such;
3. The place where the principal office of the corporation is to be located, which must be within the Philippines;
4. The term for which the corporation is to exist;
5. The names, nationalities and residences of the incorporators;
6. The number of directors or trustees, which shall not be less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15);
7. The names, nationalities and residences of persons who shall act as directors or trustees until the first regular directors or trustees are duly elected and qualified in accordance with this Code;
8. If it be a stock corporation, the amount of its authorized capital stock in lawful money of the Philippines, the number of shares into which it is divided, and in case the share are par value shares, the par value of each, the names, nationalities and residences of the original subscribers, and the amount subscribed and paid by each on his subscription, and if some or all of the shares are without par value, such fact must be stated;
9. If it be a non-stock corporation, the amount of its capital, the names, nationalities and residences of the contributors and the amount contributed by each; and
10. Such other matters as are not inconsistent with law and which the incorporators may deem necessary and convenient.

The Securities and Exchange Commission shall not accept the articles of incorporation of any stock corporation unless accompanied by a sworn statement of the Treasurer elected by the subscribers showing that at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the authorized capital stock of the corporation has been subscribed, and at least twenty-five (25%) of the total subscription has been fully paid to him in actual cash and/or in property the fair valuation of which is equal to at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the said subscription, such paid-up capital being not less than five thousand (P5,000.00) pesos.

Sec. 15. Forms of Articles of Incorporation. – Unless otherwise prescribed by special law, articles of incorporation of all domestic corporations shall comply substantially with the following form:

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION
OF

__________________________
(Name of Corporation)

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:

The undersigned incorporators, all of legal age and a majority of whom are residents of the Philippines, have this day voluntarily agreed to form a (stock) (non-stock) corporation under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines;

AND WE HEREBY CERTIFY:

FIRST: That the name of said corporation shall be

“………………………………………., INC. or CORPORATION”;

SECOND: That the purpose or purposes for which such corporation is incorporated are: (If there is more than one purpose, indicate primary and secondary purposes);

THIRD: That the principal office of the corporation is located in the City/Municipality of ………………………………………, Province of ………………………………………….., Philippines;

FOURTH: That the term for which said corporation is to exist is ……………. years from and after the date of issuance of the certificate of incorporation;

FIFTH: That the names, nationalities and residences of the incorporators of the corporation are as follows:

NAME NATIONALITY RESIDENCE

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

SIXTH: That the number of directors or trustees of the corporation shall be ………….; and the names, nationalities and residences of the first directors or trustees of the corporation are as follows:

NAME NATIONALITY RESIDENCE

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

………………………………. ………………………………. ……………………………….

SEVENTH: That the authorized capital stock of the corporation is …………………………………………. (P………………….) PESOS in lawful money of the Philippines, divided into …………… shares with the par value of …………………………….. (P…………………..) Pesos per share.

(In case all the share are without par value):

That the capital stock of the corporation is ……………………… shares without par value. (In case some shares have par value and some are without par value): That the capital stock of said corporation consists of …………………… shares of which ………………….. shares are of the par value of ………………………… (P…………………) PESOS each, and of which ………………………….. shares are without par value.

EIGHTH: That at least twenty five (25%) per cent of the authorized capital stock above stated has been subscribed as follows:

Name of Subscriber Nationality No of Shares Amount

Subscribed Subscribed

……………………………. ……………….. …………………… …………………..

……………………………. ……………….. …………………… …………………..

……………………………. ……………….. …………………… …………………..

……………………………. ……………….. …………………… …………………..

……………………………. ……………….. …………………… …………………..

NINTH: That the above-named subscribers have paid at least twenty-five (25%) percent of the total subscription as follows:

Name of Subscriber Amount Subscribed Total Paid-In

…………………………….. ……………………………….. ………………………….

…………………………….. ……………………………….. ………………………….

…………………………….. ……………………………….. ………………………….

…………………………….. ……………………………….. ………………………….

…………………………….. ……………………………….. ………………………….

(Modify Nos. 8 and 9 if shares are with no par value. In case the corporation is non-stock, Nos. 7, 8 and 9 of the above articles may be modified accordingly, and it is sufficient if the articles state the amount of capital or money contributed or donated by specified persons, stating the names, nationalities and residences of the contributors or donors and the respective amount given by each.)

TENTH: That ………………………………… has been elected by the subscribers as Treasurer of the Corporation to act as such until his successor is duly elected and qualified in accordance with the by-laws, and that as such Treasurer, he has been authorized to receive for and in the name and for the benefit of the corporation, all subscription (or fees) or contributions or donations paid or given by the subscribers or members.

ELEVENTH: (Corporations which will engage in any business or activity reserved for Filipino citizens shall provide the following):

“No transfer of stock or interest which shall reduce the ownership of Filipino citizens to less than the required percentage of the capital stock as provided by existing laws shall be allowed or permitted to recorded in the proper books of the corporation and this restriction shall be indicated in all stock certificates issued by the corporation.”

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto signed these Articles of Incorporation, this ………………. day of …………………………, 19 ……….. in the City/Municipality of …………………………………., Province of …………………………………………., Republic of the Philippines.

…………………………………….. ………………………………………

…………………………………….. ………………………………………

…………………………………………

(Names and signatures of the incorporators)

SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:

…………………………………….. ………………………………………

(Notarial Acknowledgment)

TREASURER’S AFFIDAVIT

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES )

CITY/MUNICIPALITY OF ) S.S.

PROVINCE OF )

I, ………………………………, being duly sworn, depose and say:

That I have been elected by the subscribers of the corporation as Treasurer thereof, to act as such until my successor has been duly elected and qualified in accordance with the by-laws of the corporation, and that as such Treasurer, I hereby certify under oath that at least 25% of the authorized capital stock of the corporation has been subscribed and at least 25% of the total subscription has been paid, and received by me, in cash or property, in the amount of not less than
P5,000.00, in accordance with the Corporation Code.

…………………………………

(Signature of Treasurer)

SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN to before me, a Notary Public, for and in the City/Municipality of
……………………………. Province of ……………………………………, this …………. day of ……………………., 19 ……..; by …………………………………….. with Res. Cert. No. ………………… issued at …………….. on …………………., 19 ……….

NOTARY PUBLIC

My commission expires on ………………………, 19 ……..

Doc. No. ……………;

Page No. ……………;

Book No. …………..;

Series of 19….. (7a)

Sec. 16. Amendment of Articles of Incorporation. – Unless otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law, and for legitimate purposes, any provision or matter stated in the articles of incorporation may be amended by a majority vote of the board of directors or trustees and the vote or written assent of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, without prejudice to the appraisal right of dissenting stockholders in accordance with the provisions of this Code, or the vote or written assent of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members if it be a non-stock corporation.

The original and amended articles together shall contain all provisions required by law to be set out in the articles of incorporation. Such articles, as amended shall be indicated by underscoring the change or changes made, and a copy thereof duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary and a majority of the directors or trustees stating the fact that said amendment or amendments have been duly approved by the required vote of the stockholders or members, shall be submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The amendments shall take effect upon their approval by the Securities and Exchange Commission or from the date of filing with the said Commission if not acted upon within six (6) months from the date of filing for a cause not attributable to the corporation.

Sec. 17. Grounds when articles of incorporation or amendment may be rejected or disapproved. – The Securities and Exchange Commission may reject the articles of incorporation or disapprove any amendment thereto if the same is not in compliance with the requirements of this Code: Provided, That the Commission shall give the incorporators a reasonable time within which to correct or modify the objectionable portions of the articles or amendment. The following are grounds for such rejection or disapproval:

1. That the articles of incorporation or any amendment thereto is not substantially in accordance with the form prescribed herein;
2. That the purpose or purposes of the corporation are patently unconstitutional, illegal, immoral, or contrary to government rules and regulations;
3. That the Treasurer’s Affidavit concerning the amount of capital stock subscribed and/or paid if false;
4. That the percentage of ownership of the capital stock to be owned by citizens of the Philippines has not been complied with as required by existing laws or the Constitution.

No articles of incorporation or amendment to articles of incorporation of banks, banking and quasi-banking institutions, building and loan associations, trust companies and other financial intermediaries, insurance companies, public utilities, educational institutions, and other corporations governed by special laws shall be accepted or approved by the Commission unless accompanied by a favorable recommendation of the appropriate government agency to the effect that such articles or amendment is in accordance with law.

Sec. 18. Corporate name. – No corporate name may be allowed by the Securities and Exchange Commission if the proposed name is identical or deceptively or confusingly similar to that of any existing corporation or to any other name already protected by law or is patently deceptive, confusing or contrary to existing laws. When a change in the corporate name is approved, the Commission shall issue an amended certificate of incorporation under the amended name.

Sec. 19. Commencement of corporate existence. – A private corporation formed or organized under this Code commences to have corporate existence and juridical personality and is deemed incorporated from the date the Securities and Exchange Commission issues a certificate of incorporation under its official seal; and thereupon the incorporators, stockholders/members and their successors shall constitute a body politic and corporate under the name stated in the articles of incorporation for the period of time mentioned therein, unless said period is extended or the corporation is sooner dissolved in accordance with law.

Sec. 20. De facto corporations. – The due incorporation of any corporation claiming in good faith to be a corporation under this Code, and its right to exercise corporate powers, shall not be inquired into collaterally in any private suit to which such corporation may be a party. Such inquiry may be made by the Solicitor General in a quo warranto proceeding.

Sec. 21. Corporation by estoppel. – All persons who assume to act as a corporation knowing it to be without authority to do so shall be liable as general partners for all debts, liabilities and damages incurred or arising as a result thereof: Provided, however, That when any such ostensible corporation is sued on any transaction entered by it as a corporation or on any tort committed by it as such, it shall not be allowed to use as a defense its lack of corporate personality.

On who assumes an obligation to an ostensible corporation as such, cannot resist performance thereof on the ground that there was in fact no corporation.

Sec. 22. Effects on non-use of corporate charter and continuous inoperation of a corporation. – If a corporation does not formally organize and commence the transaction of its business or the construction of its works within two (2) years from the date of its incorporation, its corporate powers cease and the corporation shall be deemed dissolved. However, if a corporation has commenced the transaction of its business but subsequently becomes continuously inoperative for a period of at least five (5) years, the same shall be a ground for the suspension or revocation of its corporate franchise or certificate of incorporation.

This provision shall not apply if the failure to organize, commence the transaction of its businesses or the construction of its works, or to continuously operate is due to causes beyond the control of the corporation as may be determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The Corporation Code of the Philippines
TITLE IGeneral Provisions
TITLE II Incorporation and Organization of Private Corporations
TITLE III Board of Directors Trustees Officers
TITLE IV Powers of Corporations
TITLE V By Laws
TITLE VI Meetings
TITLE VII Stocks and Stockholders
TITLE VIII Corporate Books and Records
TITLE IX Merger and Consolidation
TITLE X Appraisal Right
TITLE XI Non-Stock Corporations
TITLE XII Close Corporations
TITLE XIII Special Corporations
TITLE XIV Dissolution
TITLE XV Foreign Corporations
TITLE XVI Miscellaneous Provisions

Republic Act No. 8179

AN ACT TO FURTHER LIBERALIZE FOREIGN INVESTMENTS, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7042, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

SECTION 1. Section 3, paragraph (a), of Republic Act No. 7042, otherwise known as the “Foreign Investments Act of 1991″, is hereby amended to read as follows:

“Section 3. Definitions. – As used in this Act:

[a] the term “Philippine national” shall mean a citizen of the Philippines, or a domestic partnership or association wholly owned by citizens of the Philippines; or a corporation organized under the laws of the Philippines of which at least sixty percent [60%] of the capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote is owned and held by citizens of the Philippines; or a corporation organized abroad and registered as doing business in the Philippines under the Corporation Code of which one hundred percent [100%] of the capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote is wholly owned by Filipinos or a trustee of funds for pension or other employee retirement or separation benefits, where the trustee is a Philippine national and at least sixty percent [60%] of the fund will accrue to the benefit of Philippine nationals: Provided, That where a corporation and its non-Filipino stockholders own stocks in a Securities and Exchange Commission [SEC] registered enterprise, at least sixty percent [60%] of the capital stock outstanding and entitled to vote of each of both corporations must be owned and held by citizens of the Philippines, in order that the corporation shall be considered a Philippine national.”

SEC. 2. Sec. 7 of Republic Act No. 7042 is hereby amended to read as follows:

“Sec. 7. Foreign investments in domestic market enterprises. – Non-Philippine nationals may own up to one hundred percent [100%] of domestic market enterprises unless foreign ownership therein is prohibited or limited by the Constitution and existing laws or the Foreign Investment Negative List under Section 8 hereof.”

SEC. 3. Section 8 of the Foreign Investments Act of 1991 is hereby amended to read as follows:

“Sec. 8. List of investment areas reserved to Philippine nationals [Foreign Investment Negative List]. – The Foreign Investment Negative List shall have two [2] component lists: A and B:

[a] List A shall enumerate the areas of activities reserved to Philippine nationals by mandate of the Constitution and specific laws.

[b] List B shall contain the areas of activities and enterprises regulated pursuant to law:

1. which are defense-related activities, requiring prior clearance and authorization from the Department of National Defense [DND] to engage in such activity, such as the manufacture, repair, storage and/or distribution of firearms, ammunition, lethal weapons, military ordnance, explosives, pyrotechnics and similar materials; unless such manufacturing or repair activity is specifically authorized, with a substantial export component, to a non-Philippine national by the Secretary of National Defense; or

2. which have implications on public health and morals, such as the manufacture and distribution of dangerous drugs; all forms of gambling; nightclubs, bars, beer houses, dance halls, sauna and steam bathhouses and massage clinics.

“Small and medium-sized domestic market enterprises with paid-in equity capital less than the equivalent of Two hundred thousand US dollars [US$200,000.00], are reserved to Philippine nationals: Provided, That if [1] they involve advance technology as determined by the Department of Science and Technology, or [2] they employ at least fifty [50] direct employees, then a minimum paid-in capital of One hundred thousand US dollars (US$100,000.00) shall be allowed to non-Philippine nationals.

“Amendments to List B may be made upon recommendation of the Secretary of National Defense, or the Secretary of Health, or the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports, endorsed by the NEDA, or upon recommendation motu proprio, of NEDA, approved by the President, and promulgated by a Presidential Proclamation.
“The transitory Foreign Investment Negative List established in Section 15 hereof shall be replaced at the end of the transitory period by the First Regular Negative Lists to be formulated and recommended by NEDA following the process and criteria provided in Sections 8 and 9 of this Act. The First Regular Negative List shall be published not later than sixty [60] days before the end of the transitory period. Subsequent Foreign Investment Negative List shall become effective fifteen [15] days after publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines: Provided, however, That each Foreign Investment Negative List shall be prospective in operation and shall in no way affect foreign investments existing on the date of its publication.

“Amendments to List B after promulgation and publication of the First Regular Foreign Investment Negative List at the end of the transitory period shall not be made more often than once very two [2] years.”

SEC. 4. Section 9 of the Foreign Investments Act of 1991 is hereby amended to read as follows:

“SEC. 9. Investment rights of former natural-born Filipinos. – For purposes of this Act, former natural-born citizens of the Philippines shall have the same investment rights of Philippine citizens in Cooperatives under Republic Act No. 6938, Rural Banks under Republic Act No. 7353, Thrift Banks and Private Development Banks under Republic Act No. 7906, and Financing Companies under Republic Act No. 5980. These rights shall not extend to activities reserved by the Constitution including [1] the exercise of profession; [2] in defense-related activities under Section 8 (b) hereof, unless specifically authorized by the Secretary of National Defense; and [3] activities covered by Republic Act No. 1180 [Retail Trade Act], Republic Act No. 5487 [Security Agency Act], Republic Act No. 7076 [Small Scale Mining Act], Republic Act No. 3018, as amended [Rice and Corn Industry Act], and P.D. 449 [Cockpits Operation and Management]“.

SEC. 5. The Foreign Investments Act is further amended by inserting a new section designated as Section 10 to read as follows:

“SEC. 10. Other rights of natural-born citizen pursuant to the provisions of Article XII, Section 8 of the Constitution. – Any natural-born citizen who has lost his Philippine citizenship and who has the legal capacity to enter into a contract under Philippine Laws may be a transferee of a private land up to a maximum area of five thousand [5,000] square meters in the case of urban land or three [3] hectares in the case of rural land to be used by him for business or other purposes. In the case of married couples, one of them may avail of the privilege herein granted: Provided, That If both shall avail of the same, the total area acquired shall not exceed the maximum herein fixed.

“In case the transferee already owns urban or rural land for business or other purposes, he shall be entitled to be a transferee of additional urban or rural land for business or other purposes which when added to those already owned by him shall not exceed the maximum areas herein authorized.

“A transferee under this Act may acquire not more than two [2] lots which should be situated in different municipalities or cities anywhere in the Philippines: Provided, That the total land area thereof shall not exceed five thousand [5,000] square meters in the case of urban land or three [3] hectares in the case of rural land for use by him for business or other purposes. A transferee who has already acquired urban land shall be disqualified form acquiring rural land and vice versa.”

SEC. 6. The National Economic and Development Authority, in consultation with the Board of Investments, the Department of Trade and Industry and Securities and Exchange Commission, shall prepare and issue the necessary primer and other information campaign materials regarding the Foreign Investments Act and the amendments introduced thereto, with copies of said materials furnished all the Philippine embassies, consulates and other diplomatic offices abroad and disseminated to Filipino nationals, former natural-born Filipino citizens, and foreign investors, within sixty [60] days after the effectivity hereof.

SEC. 7. The NEDA is hereby directed to make the necessary amendments to the implementing rules and regulations of Republic Act No. 7042 in order to reflect the changes embodied in the Act.

SEC. 8. Sections 9 and 10 of Republic Act No. 7042 and all references thereto in said law are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. All other laws, rules and regulation and/or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.

SEC. 9. If any part or section of this Act is declared unconstitutional for any reason whatsoever, such declaration shall not in any way affect the other parts or sections of this Act.

SEC. 10. This Act shall take effect fifteen [15] days after publication in two [2] newspapers of general circulation in the Philippines.
Approved: March 28, 1996
_____________
Republic Act No. 7042 was amended by Republic Act No. 8179 which was approved on March 28, 1996. The date of effectivity thereof was on April 15, 1996.

SECTION 1. Section 3, paragraph (a), of Republic Act No. 7042, otherwise known as the “Foreign Investments Act of 1991″, is hereby amended to read as follows: